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Safety Management of Software based Equipment

A review of the principles of the safety of software-based equipment, this book begins by presenting the definition principles of safety objectives. It then moves on to show how it is possible to define a safety architecture (including redundancy, diversification, error-detection techniques) on the basis of safety objectives and how to identify objectives related to software programs. From software objectives, the authors present the different safety techniques (fault detection, redundancy and quality control). “Certifiable system” aspects are taken into account throughout the book. Contents 1. Safety Management. 2. From System to Software. 3. Certifiable Systems. 4. Risk and Safety Levels. 5. Principles of Hardware Safety. 6. Principles of Software Safety. 7. Certification. About the Authors Jean-Louis Boulanger is currently an Independent Safety Assessor (ISA) in the railway domain focusing on software elements. He is a specialist in the software engineering domain (requirement engineering, semi-formal and formal method, proof and model-checking). He also works as an expert for the French notified body CERTIFER in the field of certification of safety critical railway applications based on software (ERTMS, SCADA, automatic subway, etc.). His research interests include requirements, software verification and validation, traceability and RAMS with a special focus on SAFETY.

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COBOL Software Modernization

Nowadays, billions of lines of code are in the COBOL programming language. This book is an analysis, a diagnosis, a strategy, a MDD method and a tool to transform legacy COBOL into modernized applications that comply with Internet computing, Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and the Cloud. It serves as a blueprint for those in charge of finding solutions to this considerable challenge.

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Rapid Prototyping Software for Avionics Systems

The design, implementation and validation of avionics and aeronautical systems have become extremely complex tasks due to the increase of functionalities that are deployed in current avionics systems and the need to be able certify them before putting them into production. This book proposes a methodology to enable the rapid prototyping of such a system by considering from the start the certification aspects of the solution produced. This method takes advantage of the model-based design approaches as well as the use of formal methods for the validation of these systems. Furthermore, the use of automatic software code generation tools using models makes it possible to reduce the development phase as well as the final solution testing. This book presents, firstly, an overview of the model-based design approaches such as those used in the field of aeronautical software engineering. Secondly, an original methodology that is perfectly adapted to the field of aeronautical embedded systems is introduced. Finally, the authors illustrate the use of this method using a case study for the design, implementation and testing of a new generation aeronautical router.

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CENELEC 50128 and IEC 62279 Standards

CENELEC EN 50128 and IEC 62279 standards are applicable to the performance of software in the railway sector. The 2011 version of the 50128 standard firms up the techniques and methods to be implemented. This is a guide to its implementation, in order to understand the foundations of the standard and how it impacts on the activities to be undertaken, helping towards better a preparation for the independent evaluation phase, which is mandatory.

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Musical Rhetoric

Discourse analysis and rhetoric are very much developed in communication, linguistics, cognitive science and artificial intelligence. Besides theoretical investigations, discourse analysis is central in a number of application areas such as dialogue and negotiation, the semantic web, question answering or authoring systems. Music is also a natural language, more abstract and mathematical, which follows very strict construction principles. However, there is very limited and no recent literature on Music Discourse analysis using computational principles. This book aims at developing a central issue in musical discourse: modeling rhetoric and argumentation. It also contributes to the development of high-level multimedia annotation schemes for non-verbal communication.

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Formal Languages Automata and Numeration Systems

Formal Languages, Automaton and Numeration Systems presents readers with a review of research related to formal language theory, combinatorics on words or numeration systems, such as Words, DLT (Developments in Language Theory), ICALP, MFCS (Mathematical Foundation of Computer Science), Mons Theoretical Computer Science Days, Numeration, CANT (Combinatorics, Automata and Number Theory). Combinatorics on words deals with problems that can be stated in a non-commutative monoid, such as subword complexity of finite or infinite words, construction and properties of infinite words, unavoidable regularities or patterns. When considering some numeration systems, any integer can be represented as a finite word over an alphabet of digits. This simple observation leads to the study of the relationship between the arithmetical properties of the integers and the syntactical properties of the corresponding representations. One of the most profound results in this direction is given by the celebrated theorem by Cobham. Surprisingly, a recent extension of this result to complex numbers led to the famous Four Exponentials Conjecture. This is just one example of the fruitful relationship between formal language theory (including the theory of automata) and number theory. Contents to include: • algebraic structures, homomorphisms, relations, free monoid • finite words, prefixes, suffixes, factors, palindromes • periodicity and Fine–Wilf theorem • infinite words are sequences over a finite alphabet • properties of an ultrametric distance, example of the p-adic norm • topology of the set of infinite words • converging sequences of infinite and finite words, compactness argument • iterated morphism, coding, substitutive or morphic words • the typical example of the Thue–Morse word • the Fibonacci word, the Mex operator, the n-bonacci words • wordscomingfromnumbertheory(baseexpansions,continuedfractions,...) • the taxonomy of Lindenmayer systems • S-adic sequences, Kolakoski word • repetition in words, avoiding repetition, repetition threshold • (complete) de Bruijn graphs • concepts from computability theory and decidability issues • Post correspondence problem and application to mortality of matrices • origins of combinatorics on words • bibliographic notes • languages of finite words, regular languages • factorial, prefix/suffix closed languages, trees and codes • unambiguous and deterministic automata, Kleene’s theorem • growth function of regular languages • non-deterministic automata and determinization • radix order, first word of each length and decimation of a regular language • the theory of the minimal automata • an introduction to algebraic automata theory, the syntactic monoid and the syntactic complexity • star-free languages and a theorem of Schu ̈tzenberger • rational formal series and weighted automata • context-free languages, pushdown automata and grammars • growth function of context-free languages, Parikh’s theorem • some decidable and undecidable problems in formal language theory • bibliographic notes • factor complexity, Morse–Hedlund theorem • arithmetic complexity, Van Der Waerden theorem, pattern complexity • recurrence, uniform recurrence, return words • Sturmian words, coding of rotations, Kronecker’s theorem • frequencies of letters, factors and primitive morphism • critical exponent • factor complexity of automatic sequences • factor complexity of purely morphic sequences • primitive words, conjugacy, Lyndon word • abelianisation and abelian complexity • bibliographic notes • automatic sequences, equivalent definitions • a theorem of Cobham, equivalence of automatic sequences with constant length morphic sequences • a few examples of well-known automatic sequences • about Derksen’s theorem • some morphic sequences are not automatic • abstract numeration system and S-automatic sequences • k − ∞-automatic sequences • bibliographic notes • numeration systems, greedy algorithm • positional numeration systems, recognizable sets of integers • divisibility criterion and recognizability of N • properties of k-recognizable sets of integers, ratio and difference of consec- utive elements: syndeticity • integer base and Cobham’s theorem on the base dependence of the recog- nizability • non-standard numeration systems based on sequence of integers • linear recurrent sequences, Loraud and Hollander results • Frougny’s normalization result and addition • morphic numeration systems/sets of integers whose characteristic sequence is morphic • towards a generalization of Cobham’s theorem • a few words on the representation of real numbers, β-integers, finiteness properties • automata associated with Parry numbers and numeration systems • bibliographic notes First order logic • Presburger arithmetic and decidable theory • Muchnik’s characterization of semi-linear sets • Bu ̈chi’s theorem: k-recognizable sets are k-definable • extension to Pisot numeration systems • extension to real numbers • decidability issues for numeration systems • applications in combinatorics on words

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Developments in Risk based Approaches to Safety

This book assembles papers presented at the 14th Annual Safety-critical Systems Symposium, held at Bristol, UK in February 2006. The papers address the most critical topics in the field of safety-critical systems. The focus, considered from various perspectives, is on recent developments in risk-based approaches. Subjects discussed include innovation in risk analysis, management risk, the safety case, software safety, language development and the creation of systems for complex control functions.

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Guidelines for Performing Effective Pre Startup Safety Reviews

This book provides guidance to those with responsibility for scheduling and executing a Pre-Startup Safety Review (PSSR). It outlines a protocol and tool for use by project or turnaround teams, to effectively and efficiently schedule and execute a PSSR. Integrates PSSR throughout the project/turnaround phases, with a verification check at the traditional PSSR step Supports a "right first time" and "check only once" project philosophy to eliminate surprises Features how-to checklists, hazard assessment, batch and continuous processes, validation, and documentation Includes a CD with PSSR checklists and PSSR management system examples. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.

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Innovations in Safety Management

A critical book on the career knowledge needs of safety professionals by an industry expert Based on an exclusive author survey of corporate and divisional safety directors, this principal book on career enhancement and effective performance in safety management expertly covers the competencies necessary for success in this continually transitioning field. The coverage is so extensive, each chapter could be used as the subject of a professional society course. Innovations in Safety Management establishes a knowledge base of financial management fundamentals to open communications between safety professionals and management. It will facilitate deeper comprehension of executive decision making so that safety strategies can be delivered in business terms. Also, it will assist safety practitioners in establishing personal value within a company and communicating that value to management. Also detailed in this book are: The theoretical ideal for optimum safety performance The Safety Decision Hierarchy-placing the hierarchy of controls within tried and proven problem-solving techniques Why safety practitioners need to know about hazard analysis and risk assessment A primer on hazard analysis and risk assessment How to prevent bringing hazards into the workplace Methodology for extending task analysis to further establish value A new, three-dimensional risk scoring system Behavioral safety A history of the Safety Through Design movement This book was written with consideration for everyone responsible for safety in all businesses regardless of professional title, including safety practitioners, human relations directors, and management personnel.

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Safety and Reliability of Software Based Systems

Safety and Reliability of Software Based Systems contains papers, presented at the twelfth annual workshop organised by the Centre for Software Reliability. Contributions come from different industries in many countries, and provide discussion and cross-fertilisation of ideas relevant to systems whose safety and/or reliability are of paramount concern. This book discusses safety cases and their varying roles in different industries; using measurement to improve reliability and safety of software-based systems; latest developments in managing, developing and assessing software intensive systems where reliability and/or safety are important considerations; and practical experiences of others in industry.