Historical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt
The great pyramids of Giza, Tutankhamun, the Great Sphinx, Cleopatra, and Ramesses II: the names and achievements of Ancient Egypt are legendary. Situated along the Nile River, the Ancient Egyptian civilization began around 3150 BC and lasted over three millennia until it was conquered by Rome in 31 BC. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt expands upon the information presented in the first with a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on Egyptian rulers, bureaucrats, and commoners whose records have survived, as well as ancient society, religion, and gods.
The Nile Natural and Cultural Landscape in Egypt
Although Herodot's dictum that "Egypt is a gift of the Nile" is proverbial, there has been only scant attention to the way the river impacted on ancient Egyptian society. Egyptologists frequently focus on the textual and iconographic record, whereas archaeologists and earth scientists approach the issue from the perspective of natural sciences. The contributions in this volume bridge this gap by analyzing the river both as a natural and as a cultural phenomenon. Adopting an approach of cultural ecology, it addresses issues like ancient land use, administration and taxation, irrigation, and religious concepts.
The Complete Valley of the Kings
Here is the definitive account of the Valley of the Kings, visited by millions of tourists and famous throughout the world as the burial place of the great New Kingdom pharaohs. Some eighty tombs were dug in the valley at the height of Egyptian power more than 3,000 years ago, their chambers stocked with incredible treasures and decorated with magnificent wall paintings. It was here, in 1922, that Howard Carter stumbled upon the virtually intact tomb of the boy-king, Tutankhamun. Recently the valley has made international headlines with the discovery of the burial chapels of Ramesses the Great's many sons; The Complete Valley of the Kings is the first book to publish an account of these remarkable findings. Reeves and Wilkinson, both acknowledged authorities on the valley, bring together the art, archaeology and history in one exciting account.
Israel in Egypt
Scholars of the Hebrew Bible have in the last decade begun to question the historical accuracy of the Israelite sojourn in Egypt, as described in the book of Exodus. The reason for the rejection of the exodus tradition is said to be the lack of historical and archaeological evidence in Egypt. Those advancing these claims, however, are not specialists in the study of Egyptian history, culture, and archaeology. In this pioneering book, James Hoffmeier examines the most current Egyptological evidence and argues that it supports the biblical record concerning Israel in Egypt.
Egypt of the Pharaohs
Now available in new covers, this volume provides a comprehensive history of Ancient Egypt from its earliest days to the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.
Medicine and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt
Current questions on whether Hellenistic Egypt should be understood in terms of colonialism and imperialism, multicultural separatism, or integration and syncretism have never been closely studied in the context of healing. Examing all forms of healing within the specific socioeconomic and environmental constraints of the Ptolemies’ Egypt, this book explores how linguistic, cultural and ethnic affiliations and interactions were expressed in the medical domain. Topics include the environmental and demographic background, perceptions of Greek and Egyptian medicine, the intersection between religion and healing, interactions on the theoretical and textual plane, diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics in practice, and the range of medical practitioners. The book concludes with a case study of medicine in Ptolemaic Alexandria.
Ancient Israel in Sinai
In his pathbreaking Israel in Egypt James K. Hoffmeier sought to refute the claims of scholars who doubt the historical accuracy of the biblical account of the Israelite sojourn in Egypt. Analyzing a wealth of textual, archaeological, and geographical evidence, he put forth a thorough defense of the biblical tradition. Hoffmeier now turns his attention to the Wilderness narratives of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. As director of the North Sinai Archaeological Project, Hoffmeier has led several excavations that have uncovered important new evidence supporting the Wilderness narratives, including a major New Kingdom fort at Tell el-Borg that was occupied during the Israelite exodus. Hoffmeier employs these archaeological findings to shed new light on the route of the exodus from Egypt. He also investigates the location of Mount Sinai, and offers a rebuttal to those who have sought to locate it in northern Arabia and not in the Sinai peninsula as traditionally thought. Hoffmeier addresses how and when the Israelites could have lived in Sinai, as well as whether it would have been possible for Moses to write down the law received at Mount Sinai. Building on the new evidence for the Israelite sojourn in Egypt, Hoffmeier explores the Egyptian influence on the Wilderness tradition. For example, he finds Egyptian elements in Israelite religious practices, including the use of the tabernacle, and points to a significant number of Egyptian personal names among the generation of the exodus. The origin of Israel is a subject of much debate and the wilderness tradition has been marginalized by those who challenge its credibility. In Ancient Israel in Sinai, Hoffmeier brings the Wilderness tradition to the forefront and makes a case for its authenticity based on solid evidence and intelligent analysis.
The Hiram Key
Was Jesus a Freemason? The discovery of evidence of the most secret rites of Freemasonry in an ancient Egyptian tomb led authors Chris Knight and Bob Lomas into and extraordinary investigation of 4, 000 years of history. This astonishing bestseller raises questions that have challenged some of Western civilisation's most cherished beliefs: Were scrolls bearing the secret teachings of Jesus buried beneath Herod's Temple shortly before the destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman's? Did the Knights Templar, the forerunners of modern Freemasonry, excavate these scrolls in the twelfth century? And were these scrolls subsequently buried underneath a reconstruction of Herod's Temple, Rosslyn Chapel in Scotland - where they are now awaiting excavation? The authors' discoveries shed a new light on Masonic ceremony and overturn out understanding of history.
The Political Situation in Egypt During the Second Intermediate Period C 1800 1550 B C
This study is an attempt to establish a chronology for the Second Intermediate Period (the 250 years prior to 1800-1550 BC), and define the different kingdoms which then existed. The Second Intermediate Period separates the two glorious periods of the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. During the 19th century BC, an invasion by Canaanite tribes into the Egyptian Delta took place. Around 1800 BC, these people proclaimed their own king and the Delta thus became independent from the rest of Egypt. Egypt remained split between Canaanite kings in the north and native Egyptian kings in the south for the remainder of the Second Intermediate Period. The division of Egypt brought about an economic decline, and the entire period is characterised by a lack of royal monuments. This circumstance has greatly hampered attempts to establish a chronology of the period and, as a consequence, it has been very difficult to date many sources which are relevant for the social and political situation of the period. The Second Intermediate Period has, therefore, remained one of the most obscure periods of Egypt's ancient history. The first chapter discusses the primary sources for the chronology of the period. It includes a revised restoration and a comprehensive source evaluation of the famous Turin King-list, a papyrus from the New Kingdom (1550-1100 BC), which contains the only complete king-list from Pharaonic Egypt. The second chapter, the individual dynasties/kingdoms of the period are systematically defined according to their kings, geographical and chronological extent. The fourth and final chapter contains an historical outline of the political situation during the Second Intermediate Period, based on the conclusions in the study. Appended to the work is a catalogue of all the sources, approximately 1500, known to contain the names of the Egyptian kings of the period. Each source is briefly described in terms of type, origin and present location, followed by bibliographical references. This catalogue, which also includes some unpublished material, is intended to facilitate further research into the period.
The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt
A detailed resource to the dynasties of approximately 1,500 rulers and royal family members explores their roles in ancient politics, culture, and religion, offering a basic summary of the structure of the pharaonic state and providing a chronological survey from c. 3100 BC and the First Dynasty through Egypt's absorption into the Roman Empire.