European Prehistory

Titre : European Prehistory
Auteur : Sarunas Milisauskas
Éditeur : Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN-13 : 9781461507512
Libération : 2012-12-06

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Sarunas Milisauskas· 1.1 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this book is four-fold: to introduce English-speaking students and scholars to some of the outstanding archaeological research that has been done in Europe in recent years; to integrate this research into an anthropological frame of reference; to address episodes of culture change such as the transition to farming; the origin of complex societies, and the origin of urbanism, and to provide an overview of European prehistory from the earliest appearance of humans to the rise of the Roman empire. In 1978, the Academic Press published my book European Prehistory which, typically for that period, emphasized cultural evolution, culture process, technology, environment, and economy. To produce a new version and an up- to-date prehistory of Europe, I have invited contributions from specialists in the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages. Thus while this version of European Prehistory is a new book, however, it still incorporates some data from the 1978 version, particularly in The Present Environment and Neolithic chapters. Like its predecessor, this edition is structured around selected general topics, such as technology, trade, settlement, warfare, and ritual.

Megalithism

Titre : Megalithism
Auteur : Alberto Pozzi
Éditeur : Universal-Publishers
ISBN-13 : 9781612332550
Libération : 2014-09-23

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Megalithism, or the art of using huge boulders to create sacred, pagan monuments and sites, still fascinates us today. How did Prehistoric man cut, transport, and place such enormous stones, some weighing up to 200 metric tons, without bulldozers, drills, and cranes? Yet primitive man, without the written word or wheel, created structures which still stupefy us in the 21st century, both due to their components and the precision used in positioning them. This book takes us back in time to the 5th-2nd millennia B.C. and helps us visualise the Stone Age world and its constructions - menhirs, dolmens, rows and circles of standing stones. Undoubtedly they were sacred places, used for pagan rituals and funerary purposes, but the author also gives us details of their astronomic and physical alignment, which clearly demonstrates the knowledge of the heavens these ancestors had and how they applied it without slide-rules, set squares, and theodolites. The high priests of ancient times could calculate when the solstices and equinoxes would occur and thus regulate the seasons for sowing and reaping. The author's careful and updated identification of all such structures leads us through 'Ancient European Megalithism' complete with the religious and social aspects of it and its pagan legacies. He does not neglect forms of 'sub-actual' megalithism either - the use of massive stones by peoples described as primitive but with a relatively advanced culture who lived in times closer to our own in Africa, Asia, and South America. The myths and legends arising from the megalithic structures are recounted here in detail; the author also describes megalithic art in the form of statue-stele and menhir statues, as well as the often intricate decoration carved on single stones and in construction such as dolmens, funerary mounds, astronomic observatories, and temples. He also describes studies and experiments on the methods of transport and construction used by Prehistoric peoples, together with conflicting opinions and theories. Amply illustrated with photographs and drawings, Megalithism guides the reader through every part of the megalithic world with smooth-flowing text that will be accessible to specialists and interested general public alike.

The Megalithic Architectures of Europe

Titre : The Megalithic Architectures of Europe
Auteur : Christopher Scarre
Éditeur : Oxbow Books
ISBN-13 : 9781785700170
Libération : 2015-12-31

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Megalithic monuments are among the most striking remains of the Neolithic period of northern and western Europe and are scattered across landscapes from Pomerania to Portugal. Antiquarians and archaeologists early recognized the family resemblance of the different groups of tombs, attributing them to maritime peoples moving along the western seaways. More recent research sees them rather as the product of established early farming communities in their individual regions. Yet the diversity of the tombs, their chronologies and their varied cultural contexts complicates any straightforward understanding of their origins and distribution. Megalithic Architectures provides new insight by focusing on the construction and design of European megalithic tombs – on the tomb as an architectural project. It shows how much is to be learned from detailed attention to the stages and the techniques through which tombs were built, modified and enlarged, and often intentionally dismantled or decommissioned. The large slabs that were employed, often unshaped, may suggest an opportunistic approach by the Neolithic builders, but this was clearly far from the case. Each building project was unique, and detailed study of individual sites exposes the way in which tombs were built as architectural, social and symbolic undertakings. Alongside the manner in which the materials were used, it reveals a store of knowledge that sometimes differed considerably from one structure to another, even between contemporary monuments within a single region. The volume brings together regional specialists from Scandinavia, Germany, Britain, France, Belgium and Iberia to offer a series of uniquely authoritative studies. Results of recent fieldwork are fully incorporated and much of the material is published here for the first time in English. It provides an invaluable overview of the current state of research on European megalithic tombs. Megalithic monuments are among the most striking remains of the Neolithic period of northern and western Europe and are scattered across landscapes from Pomerania to Portugal. Antiquarians and archaeologists early recognized the family resemblance of the different groups of tombs, attributing them to maritime peoples moving along the western seaways. More recent research sees them rather as the product of established early farming communities in their individual regions. Yet the diversity of the tombs, their chronologies and their varied cultural contexts complicates any straightforward understanding of their origins and distribution. Megalithic Architectures provides new insight by focusing on the construction and design of European megalithic tombs – on the tomb as an architectural project. It shows how much is to be learned from detailed attention to the stages and the techniques through which tombs were built, modified and enlarged, and often intentionally dismantled or decommissioned. The large slabs that were employed, often unshaped, may suggest an opportunistic approach by the Neolithic builders, but this was clearly far from the case. Each building project was unique, and detailed study of individual sites exposes the way in which tombs were built as architectural, social and symbolic undertakings. Alongside the manner in which the materials were used, it reveals a store of knowledge that sometimes differed considerably from one structure to another, even between contemporary monuments within a single region. The volume brings together regional specialists from Scandinavia, Germany, Britain, France, Belgium and Iberia to offer a series of uniquely authoritative studies. Results of recent fieldwork are fully incorporated and much of the material is published here for the first time in English. It provides an invaluable overview of the current state of research on European megalithic tombs. Megalithic monuments are among the most striking remains of the Neolithic period of northern and western Europe and are scattered across landscapes from Pomerania to Portugal. Antiquarians and archaeologists early recognized the family resemblance of the different groups of tombs, attributing them to maritime peoples moving along the western seaways. More recent research sees them rather as the product of established early farming communities in their individual regions. Yet the diversity of the tombs, their chronologies and their varied cultural contexts complicates any straightforward understanding of their origins and distribution. Megalithic Architectures provides new insight by focusing on the construction and design of European megalithic tombs – on the tomb as an architectural project. It shows how much is to be learned from detailed attention to the stages and the techniques through which tombs were built, modified and enlarged, and often intentionally dismantled or decommissioned. The large slabs that were employed, often unshaped, may suggest an opportunistic approach by the Neolithic builders, but this was clearly far from the case. Each building project was unique, and detailed study of individual sites exposes the way in which tombs were built as architectural, social and symbolic undertakings. Alongside the manner in which the materials were used, it reveals a store of knowledge that sometimes differed considerably from one structure to another, even between contemporary monuments within a single region. The volume brings together regional specialists from Scandinavia, Germany, Britain, France, Belgium and Iberia to offer a series of uniquely authoritative studies. Results of recent fieldwork are fully incorporated and much of the material is published here for the first time in English. It provides an invaluable overview of the current state of research on European megalithic tombs. Megalithic monuments are among the most striking remains of the Neolithic period of northern and western Europe and are scattered across landscapes from Pomerania to Portugal. Antiquarians and archaeologists early recognized the family resemblance of the different groups of tombs, attributing them to maritime peoples moving along the western seaways. More recent research sees them rather as the product of established early farming communities in their individual regions. Yet the diversity of the tombs, their chronologies and their varied cultural contexts complicates any straightforward understanding of their origins and distribution. Megalithic Architectures provides new insight by focusing on the construction and design of European megalithic tombs – on the tomb as an architectural project. It shows how much is to be learned from detailed attention to the stages and the techniques through which tombs were built, modified and enlarged, and often intentionally dismantled or decommissioned. The large slabs that were employed, often unshaped, may suggest an opportunistic approach by the Neolithic builders, but this was clearly far from the case. Each building project was unique, and detailed study of individual sites exposes the way in which tombs were built as architectural, social and symbolic undertakings. Alongside the manner in which the materials were used, it reveals a store of knowledge that sometimes differed considerably from one structure to another, even between contemporary monuments within a single region. The volume brings together regional specialists from Scandinavia, Germany, Britain, France, Belgium and Iberia to offer a series of uniquely authoritative studies. Results of recent fieldwork are fully incorporated and much of the material is published here for the first time in English. It provides an invaluable overview of the current state of research on European megalithic tombs. Megalithic monuments are among the most striking remains of the Neolithic period of northern and western Europe and are scattered across landscapes from Pomerania to Portugal. Antiquarians and archaeologists early recognized the family resemblance of the different groups of tombs, attributing them to maritime peoples moving along the western seaways. More recent research sees them rather as the product of established early farming communities in their individual regions. Yet the diversity of the tombs, their chronologies and their varied cultural contexts complicates any straightforward understanding of their origins and distribution. Megalithic Architectures provides new insight by focusing on the construction and design of European megalithic tombs – on the tomb as an architectural project. It shows how much is to be learned from detailed attention to the stages and the techniques through which tombs were built, modified and enlarged, and often intentionally dismantled or decommissioned. The large slabs that were employed, often unshaped, may suggest an opportunistic approach by the Neolithic builders, but this was clearly far from the case. Each building project was unique, and detailed study of individual sites exposes the way in which tombs were built as architectural, social and symbolic undertakings. Alongside the manner in which the materials were used, it reveals a store of knowledge that sometimes differed considerably from one structure to another, even between contemporary monuments within a single region. The volume brings together regional specialists from Scandinavia, Germany, Britain, France, Belgium and Iberia to offer a series of uniquely authoritative studies. Results of recent fieldwork are fully incorporated and much of the material is published here for the first time in English. It provides an invaluable overview of the current state of research on European megalithic tombs.

Neolithic Settlement in Ireland and Western Britain

Titre : Neolithic Settlement in Ireland and Western Britain
Auteur : Ian Armit
Éditeur : Oxbow Books Limited
ISBN-13 : 1842170910
Libération : 2003

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The papers in this volume which were presented at a conference held at Queen's University, Belfast, provided a forum for a discussion of the new Neolithic material from Ireland in its wider geographical context. Although the bulk of the emerging Irish settlement evidence relates to substantial houses, many of these papers consider wider themes including issues of contact and communication along the sea routes and coaxial margins of north-west Europe, questions of diversity and regional patterns of sedentism and mobility, and variations in regional food production strategies. The volume includes twenty-six papers representing a series of studies ranging geographically from Orkney to the French Altantic facade.

Arch ologie en C zallier et aux confins du Limon

Titre : Arch ologie en C zallier et aux confins du Limon
Auteur : Alphonse Vinatié
Éditeur : Pierre Couderc
ISBN-13 : 2855790301
Libération : 2002

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L'ouvrage que vous proposent Alphonse Vinatie et Christian Baillargeat court de la Préhistoire au Haut Moyen Age. Il recense les nombreuses découvertes archéologiques faites ces dernières années en Cezallier et aux confins du Plateau du Limon. Dans cette belle et rude contrée du Nord Cantal, les chasseurs cueilleurs de l'épipaléolithique se sont installés à la grotte du Cuze de Saint Anastasie. Plus tard, les pâturages des hautes terres et les sites de sources ont attiré les hommes du Néolithique qui ont marqué leur présence par quelques dolmens et menhirs qui subsistent encore. Aux Ages du Bronze et du Fer les communautés humaines qui se sont succédées ont sacralisé ces vastes étendues en inhumant leurs morts dans d'importantes nécropoles tumulaires qui font du Cantal le premier département français pour le nombre de ses tertres funéraires. Avec la conquête et l'occupation romaine se sont ensuite implantées de riches villae et lieux de culte (fanums) traduisant la présence d'un système agricole dense et développé, desservi par une voirie structurée. Puis, au fil des millénaires, mottes féodales et villages désertés ont laissé, à leur tour, leurs empreintes. Jean-Pierre Daugas, Conservateur Général du Patrimoine, le souligne " la moisson n'est pas mince de trouvailles et d'observations inédites qui viennent singulièrement renouveler l'idée que l'on pouvait se faire d'un certain désert rural à ces époques anciennes... ".

The Prehistory and Early History of Atlantic Europe

Titre : The Prehistory and Early History of Atlantic Europe
Auteur : European Association of Archaeologists. Meeting
Éditeur : British Archaeological Reports Limited
ISBN-13 : 1841710628
Libération : 2000-01-01

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Eleven papers from a session held at the European Association of Archaeologists Fourth Annual Meeting in Goteborg, 1998, aimed at promoting the study of the contacts, connections, events and influences that took place among Atlantic communities from the 5th millennium BC to the 1st millennium AD. Contents: Achnacreebeag and its French connections (A Sheridan); Early husbandry in Atlantic areas (A Tresset); Interaction between early farmers and indigenous people in Central Belgium (M Lodewijckx & C Bakels); Field systems and the Atlantic Bronze Age (R Johnston); Exchange and communication (C Mount); Later Bronze Age western Iberia (C Gibson); Scottish Atlantic Iron Age (E MacKie); Drystone settlement records of Atlantic Scotland and Ireland (J Henderson); 1st millennia settlement development in the Atlantic West (S Gilmour); Stone forts along the Atlantic coast of Ireland (C Cotter); Material culture and North Sea contacts in the 5th to 7th centuries AD

Le N olithique en Europe

Titre : Le N olithique en Europe
Auteur : Nicolas Cauwe
Éditeur : Armand Colin
ISBN-13 : 9782200242411
Libération : 2007-11-28

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Qui dit « Néolithique » pense en général « révolution » : comment qualifier autrement une période durant laquelle l’homme s’est engagé, pour le meilleur et le pire, dans les logiques de la production ? À l’échelle des temps, nous sommes d’assez proches héritiers des premiers éleveurs et agriculteurs... Mais cette révolution prit son temps, et son cours, ses tours et ses détours sont infiniment complexes. En Europe, le processus, qui débute au VIIe millénaire avant notre ère, ne prend sa pleine mesure que plusieurs millénaires plus tard. Les auteurs de ce livre montrent comment apparurent, prirent corps, se combinèrent, avec quelles conséquences directes ou lointaines, toute une série de phénomènes majeurs : sédentarisation systématique des communautés, transformations socioreligieuses, avec notamment une nouvelle approche du rapport aux morts, établissement de réseaux commerciaux structurés, invention de la roue et de l’attelage, in fine développement de la première métallurgie, événement qui marque assez arbitrairement la fin de cette page d’histoire. Le spécialiste appréciera l’étendue, la finesse, la qualité et le caractère inédit de cette synthèse – la première en langue française depuis plus de vingt ans –, et trouvera matière à faire évoluer son regard sur une période dont il pouvait croire « tout » connaître ; l’homme cultivé entrera avec curiosité, puis passion dans la lecture de ce chapitre d’ouverture du grand roman de l’humanité «moderne». Nicolas CAUWE est professeur de Préhistoire à l’Université catholique de Louvain (Belgique), conservateur des collections de Préhistoire et de Polynésie aux Musées royaux d’Art et d’Histoire de Bruxelles. Ses recherches portent principalement sur la Préhistoire récente d’Europe et sur la Polynésie. Pavel DOLUKHANOV est professeur honoraire de Préhistoire de l’Université de Newcastle (Royaume-Uni) et membre de l’Académie des Sciences de New York. Ses recherches principales portent sur le paléo-environnement, la Préhistoire récente d’Europe et d’Asie et la paléo-linguistique. Janusz K. KOZLOWSKI est professeur de Préhistoire à l’Université de Cracovie (Pologne), membre de l’Académie polonaise des Sciences et des Lettres. Ses recherches portent principalement sur la Préhistoire d’Europe septentrionale et des Balkans. Paul-Louis VAN BERG est professeur de méthodologie et de théorie de l’archéologie à l’Université libre de Bruxelles (Belgique). Ses recherches portent principalement sur la Préhistoire d’Europe et du Proche-Orient. Ouvrage dirigé par François Djindjian.

Unit et diversit des processus de n olithisation sur la fa ade atlantique de l Europe 6e 4e mill naires avant J C

Titre : Unit et diversit des processus de n olithisation sur la fa ade atlantique de l Europe 6e 4e mill naires avant J C
Auteur :
Éditeur :
ISBN-13 : CHI:68758750
Libération : 2005

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A été écrit sous une forme ou une autre pendant la plus grande partie de sa vie. Vous pouvez trouver autant d'inspiration de Unit et diversit des processus de n olithisation sur la fa ade atlantique de l Europe 6e 4e mill naires avant J C Aussi informatif et amusant. Cliquez sur le bouton TÉLÉCHARGER ou Lire en ligne pour obtenir gratuitement le livre de titre $ gratuitement.

Ancient Stones

Titre : Ancient Stones
Auteur : Salvatore Piccolo
Éditeur :
ISBN-13 : 0956510620
Libération : 2013-03

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A richly illustrated guide to the dolmen culture of Prehistoric Sicily. Scattered around the world in woods and on mountains dolmens have posed a mystery for hundreds of years. The interpretations of these mysteries have been extremely imaginative over the centuries. But in Sicily it has only been in recent years that the presence of numerous megaliths has been revealed. This manual provides a comprehensive guide to the dolmens of Sicily and the artefacts as well as historical and cultural associations of these prehistoric sites. With 26 black and white illustrations

Megalithic Research in the Netherlands 1547 1911

Titre : Megalithic Research in the Netherlands 1547 1911
Auteur : Jan Albert Bakker
Éditeur : Sidestone Press
ISBN-13 : 9789088900341
Libération : 2010

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The impressive megalithic tombs in the northeastern Netherlands are called 'hunebedden', meaning 'Giants' graves'. These enigmatic Neolithic structures date to around 3000 BC and were built by the Funnelbeaker, or TRB, people. The current interpretation of these monuments, however, is the result of over 400 years of megalithic research, the history of which is recorded in this book. The medieval idea that only giants could have put the huge boulders of which they were made into position was still defended in 1660. Others did not venture to explain how hunebeds could have been constructed, but ascribed them to the most ancient, normally sized inhabitants. 16th-century writings speculated that Tacitus was referring to hunebeds when he wrote about the 'Pillars of Hercules' in Germania. Titia Brongersma is the first person recorded to do excavations in a hunebed, in 1685. The human bones she excavated were from normally sized men and suggested that such men, not giants, had constructed the hunebeds. Other haphazard diggings followed, but much worse was the invention of stone covered dikes which required large amounts of stone. This launched a widespread collection of erratic boulders, which included the hunebeds. Boundary stones were stole and several hunebeds were seriously damaged or they vanished completely. Such actions were forbidden in 1734, by one of the earliest laws protecting prehistoric monuments in the world. From the mid 18th century onwards a variety of eminent but relatively unknown researchers studied the hunebeds, including Van Lier (1760), Camper and son (1768-1808), Westendorp (1815), Lukis and Dryden (1878) and Pleytet (1877-1902). This intriguing history of ancient hunebed research ends in 1912, when the modern, systematic excavations of complete hunebeds began and continued until 1985. In the Introduction, a brief general review is given of the present knowledge and ideas about the Hunebed Builders, who lived some 5000 years ago during the Stone Age. The book is illustrated with a large number of drawing and prints from the 16th to the 20th century. An extensive summary in German is included. A brief description of all 53 existing hunebeds and 21-24 excavated demolished ones is included in the appendices.