Besoins informationnels et extraction d information Vers une conscience artificielle
Cet ouvrage réconcilie la philosophie, la biologie, la sociologie et les sciences cognitives grâce à un dénominateur commun, la conscience. Il en présente un aspect particulier, le concept d’auto-motivation de champ d’activité en tant que moteur biologique d’un état de conscience, et dont l’informatique systémique permet de révéler l’existence. Si la conscience est mal définie, un cadre réduit permet d’en donner une définition plus précise, observable malgré toute la complexité psychologique, sociale et technique de l’individu. Ces observations sont de deux natures : une nature d’activité principale et une nature cognitivo-linguistique, modulées par des facteurs de contrôle intrinsèques et extrinsèques. L’argument exposé consiste à présenter un état de conscience relatif à la notion de besoin informationnel instinctif, donc physiologique, et dont les traces porteuses sur les supports physiques (revues, abonnements, etc.) ou numériques (sms, web, etc.), sont analysables par l’extraction de connaissances.
Innovation is a key source of competitive advantage, but it remains frustratingly elusive for many organizations. This book shows you how to close the innovation gap by making individuals and organizations systematically and sustainably innovative. You will learn how to embrace a culture of innovation and make it permeate every level of the organization. You will find a clear road map and practical tools to redefine your workplace's culture, identify and tap into the existing innovative intelligence, and develop leaders who can close the innovation gap for greater business success.
Seven Complex Lessons in Education for the Future
Examines fundamental problems often overlooked or neglected in education. These problems are presented as "seven complex lessons" that should be covered in an education of the future in all societies in every culture, according to means and rules appropriate to those societies and cultures.
The pervasive creation and consumption of content, especially visual content, is ingrained into our modern world. We’re constantly consuming visual media content, in printed form and in digital form, in work and in leisure pursuits. Like our cave– man forefathers, we use pictures to record things which are of importance to us as memory cues for the future, but nowadays we also use pictures and images to document processes; we use them in engineering, in art, in science, in medicine, in entertainment and we also use images in advertising. Moreover, when images are in digital format, either scanned from an analogue format or more often than not born digital, we can use the power of our computing and networking to exploit images to great effect. Most of the technical problems associated with creating, compressing, storing, transmitting, rendering and protecting image data are already solved. We use - cepted standards and have tremendous infrastructure and the only outstanding ch- lenges, apart from managing the scale issues associated with growth, are to do with locating images. That involves analysing them to determine their content, clas- fying them into related groupings, and searching for images. To overcome these challenges we currently rely on image metadata, the description of the images, - ther captured automatically at creation time or manually added afterwards.
The Influence of Technology on Social Network Analysis and Mining
The study of social networks was originated in social and business communities. In recent years, social network research has advanced significantly; the development of sophisticated techniques for Social Network Analysis and Mining (SNAM) has been highly influenced by the online social Web sites, email logs, phone logs and instant messaging systems, which are widely analyzed using graph theory and machine learning techniques. People perceive the Web increasingly as a social medium that fosters interaction among people, sharing of experiences and knowledge, group activities, community formation and evolution. This has led to a rising prominence of SNAM in academia, politics, homeland security and business. This follows the pattern of known entities of our society that have evolved into networks in which actors are increasingly dependent on their structural embedding General areas of interest to the book include information science and mathematics, communication studies, business and organizational studies, sociology, psychology, anthropology, applied linguistics, biology and medicine.
Biomedical Image Analysis and Mining Techniques for Improved Health Outcomes
Every second, users produce large amounts of image data from medical and satellite imaging systems. Image mining techniques that are capable of extracting useful information from image data are becoming increasingly useful, especially in medicine and the health sciences. Biomedical Image Analysis and Mining Techniques for Improved Health Outcomes addresses major techniques regarding image processing as a tool for disease identification and diagnosis, as well as treatment recommendation. Highlighting current research intended to advance the medical field, this publication is essential for use by researchers, advanced-level students, academicians, medical professionals, and technology developers. An essential addition to the reference material available in the field of medicine, this timely publication covers a range of applied research on data mining, image processing, computational simulation, data visualization, and image retrieval.
The Semantic Sphere 1
The new digital media offers us an unprecedented memory capacity, an ubiquitous communication channel and a growing computing power. How can we exploit this medium to augment our personal and social cognitive processes at the service of human development? Combining a deep knowledge of humanities and social sciences as well as a real familiarity with computer science issues, this book explains the collaborative construction of a global hypercortex coordinated by a computable metalanguage. By recognizing fully the symbolic and social nature of human cognition, we could transform our current opaque global brain into a reflexive collective intelligence.
Basic Color Terms
Explores the psychophysical and neurophysical determinants of cross-linguistic constraints on the shape of color lexicons.
The Creative Destruction of Medicine
What if your cell phone could detect cancer cells circulating in your blood or warn you of an imminent heart attack? Mobile wireless digital devices, including smartphones and tablets with seemingly limitless functionality, have brought about radical changes in our lives, providing hyper-connectivity to social networks and cloud computing. But the digital world has hardly pierced the medical cocoon. Until now. Beyond reading email and surfing the Web, we will soon be checking our vital signs on our phone. We can already continuously monitor our heart rhythm, blood glucose levels, and brain waves while we sleep. Miniature ultrasound imaging devices are replacing the icon of medicine—the stethoscope. DNA sequencing, Facebook, and the Watson supercomputer have already saved lives. For the first time we can capture all the relevant data from each individual to enable precision therapy, prevent major side effects of medications, and ultimately to prevent many diseases from ever occurring. And yet many of these digital medical innovations lie unused because of the medical community’s profound resistance to change. In The Creative Destruction of Medicine, Eric Topol—one of the nation’s top physicians and a leading voice on the digital revolution in medicine—argues that radical innovation and a true democratization of medical care are within reach, but only if we consumers demand it. We can force medicine to undergo its biggest shakeup in history. This book shows us the stakes—and how to win them.